Persistent connections

Web pages that consist of text alone are retrieved from a web server with one HTTP request. However, many web pages contain images and other objects that require additional HTTP requests; some corporate home pages contain more that 60 images, each requiring a separate HTTP request. The page shown in Example B-4 requires three requests: the first to get the page and then two more to get the images. While the browser is usually configured to make up to four parallel requests, with HTTP/1.0, each request must open a separate TCP connection to the server. This is expensive as each request adds to the cost of the TCP dialog required to open the virtual connection.

As a result, browsers and web servers often support a keep-alive capability to reduce the time taken to load web pages that contain images. This feature allows multiple requests to be made in succession using the one TCP connection. After a specified idle period, the connection is assumed to be no longer required and is closed by the server. HTTP/1.1 uses persistent TCP connections as the default behavior. Persistent connections not only improve the performance of the browser but reduce the load on a HTTP server and on the network, because fewer TCP connections need to be established.

In the same way as the simultaneous request model, a browser can send multiple requests on a persistent connection without waiting for each response. This behavior is called pipelining.


Originally, web pages were solely HTML documents encoding text and hypertext links to other pages. The first version of HTTP, HTTP/0.9, was not much more than a way to wrap HTML documents. However, web pages today are made up of a variety of resources including images, Java applets, sounds, movies, and the HTML that glues them all together.

To allow the transfer of other resources, HTTP/1.0 has borrowed the concepts of Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) as a way to encode objects. As the name suggests, MIME attaches content with encoding other that plain text to electronic mail. HTTP's use of MIME is almost identical to its use in electronic mail.

MIME includes several header fields that describe the enclosed data and are included in the HTTP messages that contain a body. If the response message is carrying a HTML file, the Content-Type field is set to text/html. Web browsers examine the media type in the Content-Type field to help decide how to render the body of a response. They can also be configured to use particular helper applications for those media types that can't be directly displayed. The Content-Length field is also set to the number of bytes that make up the original content.

MIME uses media types to describe content. Media types are divided into a content-type and subtype pairs. The MIME standard defines seven content-types and several basic subtypes. The subtypes can be extended to specifically define different media. A list of well-known subtypes for each content-type is maintained by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) and can be found at

Media types are also used to describe browser and server capabilities, and preferences. The Accept request header field informs the web server of browser capabilities and preferences. This field carries a list of types in preference order and can include weighting factors.