Here you'll find the lists of books and online resources that cover many of the topics discussed in this tutorial. We'll discuss four sections:

Client-tier resources

HTML, XML, XHTML, CSS, and JavaScript resources.

Middle-tier resources

Web server, web technology, and PHP resources. In particular, we include pointers to third-party PHP development tools, an introduction to the PHP libraries, and open source projects.

Database-tier resources

Database theory, SQL, and DBMS-specific resources.

Security and cryptography resources

Software installation resources are listed at the end of Appendix A.

Client Tier Resources

More information on HTML, the related topic of CSS, JavaScript, and directions in the standards that web browsers support can be found in the following resources:

  • The W3C web site has links to many of the web standards, including HTML 4 (, Cascading Style Sheets, XML, and XHTML. The HTML validator-which was used to validate all examples in this tutorial-can be found at

  • The HTML Writer's Guild (HWG) is an organization that provides many useful resources to web developers, including links to lists of browser features and HTML validators. Trial membership is free for the first year. The HWG web site is

  • The original cookie specification was developed by Netscape and can be found at

  • XHTML 1.0 Recommendations can be found from the W3C site at