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PHP

Convert a delimited string into an array

How to parse a CSV, tab, space, or any other single-byte character delimited string into an array using the str_getcsv() function.

<?php
 //Syntax
 str_getcsv(
  string $string, string $separator = ",",
  string $enclosure = "\"",string $escape = "\\"
 ): array

This function takes four parameters:

  1. $string: the string to parse
  2. $separator (optional): the delimiter (one single-byte character only), default delimiter is , (comma).
  3. $enclosure (optional): one character (single-byte), default enclosure character is ", by default double-qutations marks will be deleted if a value surrounded by them. See example.
  4. $escape (optional): the escape character (single-byte), default is backslash \, use an empty string "" to disable this parameter.

The str_getcsv() function reads data from a string and converted into an array. By default it parsed the comma separated values, see examples:

Example: Parses comma-delimited string into an array.

<?php
 $csvStr = '"a","b","c","d"'; 
 $array = str_getcsv($csvStr);
 print_r($array);
 //Array ( [0] => a [1] => b [2] => c [3] => d )

Example: Parse tab-separated string into an array

<?php
#Tab separated values enclosed in pipe sign
 $csvStr = '|a|	|b|	|c|	|d|'; 
#Set tab as separator, use keyboard tab key or \t 
 $array = str_getcsv($csvStr,"\t");
 print_r($array);
 /*Array
(
    [0] => |a|
    [1] => |b|
    [2] => |c|
    [3] => |d|
)*/

#Set separator and enclosure values
 $array = str_getcsv($csvStr,"\t", '|');
 print_r($array);
 /*Array
(
    [0] => a
    [1] => b
    [2] => c
    [3] => d
)*/

Example: Parses comma separated multi-line string into an array.

The ollowing example demonstrates, how to parse multiple lines of CSV data using str_getcsv() function. First, we parsed the string, we used newline \n as a separator and received lines (rows) and then parsed each line with the str_getcsv() function to split the lines into individual cell values (array):

<?php
 $csvMultirows = 'h1,h2,h3,h4
a1,b1,c1,d1
a2,b2,c2,d2
a3,b3,c3,d3';

 $rows = str_getcsv($csvMultirows, "\n");
 echo '<pre>';
 foreach ($rows as $row){
  $cells = str_getcsv($row);
  foreach ($cells as $cell)
   echo $cell.' ';
  echo "\n";
 }
/* Prints: 
h1 h2 h3 h4 
a1 b1 c1 d1 
a2 b2 c2 d2 
a3 b3 c3 d3*/